Translated by Rachel Robson & revised by Kurniati Shinta Dewi

Death ship not named
by Hidayat Tantan, Mariana Ariestyawati, dan Sugiyanto
29 October 2001

The dreams of hundreds of illegal immigrants originating from the Middle East ended in the waters of the Indian Ocean. The Prime Minister of Australia has used this to strike at Indonesia. The brains behind the smugglers are still at large.

It has fallen on the head of Riau Regional Police, Brigadier General Djoni Yod-jana. Reporters came alternately requesting confirmation, followed by a statement by the Head of Indonesian Police, General Soerojo Bimantoro which caused quite a commotion. "It's true we didn't arrest anyone," said Djoni to Gatra, a week ago. "The Chief of Police's statement is correct, but mentions the wrong location," Djoni added.

The arrest, according to him, didn't take place in Riau, but in Lampung. I have already checked with Police Headquarters," he said. A day before, after meeting President Megawati Soekarnoputri in the Capital Building, Jakarta, the General who will be approaching pension age distributed the news which has caused such a commotion: two police had been arrested after the sinking of the fishing boat which was packed with hundreds of illegal immigrants in the waters of the Indian Ocean the previous week.

"I have already checked with the Riau police, two people have now been arrested. Their rank is police Brigadier," he said. Are these two police the ones who used weapons to force the immigrants to board the vessel as has been reported in the Australian media? "No, they were only guarding it." said Bimantoro. Such service that these two police provided is regarded as a violation because they didn't have orders from above.

Bimantoro's explanation answered all at once the request of the Australian Prime Minister, John Howard. To boost his political position which for several months had been under attack from the opposition as he was regarded as incompetent to handle illegal immigration, Howard tried threatening Jakarta. He requested an official explanation of the matter of the ship sinking in the Indian Ocean.

The Sydney Morning Herald and The Australian reported, police officers had forced the immigrants to board the boat at the point of a gun. "This is a tragedy. If these accusations are correct, the matter shows corrupt authorities," said PM Howard in an interview with ABC radio in Canberra on Thursday last week.

The question is: who requested the arrest of the two police? Abu Quassey, a man of Egyptian birth who was fleeing from the Australian police? Abu is actually regarded as one of the godfathers in the matter of smuggling illegal immigrants from the Middle East to 'the land of the kangaroo' through Indonesia.

Abu Quassey is also regarded as responsible for consigning the death package in the waters of the Indian Ocean, off the beach in South Banten. Up to the end of last week, the police rejected clarifying the connection between the two people involved with Abu Quassey. Bimantoro only said that Abu is still being pursued by the police.

The police in Lampung dispute the belief that they have detained their members. There is no indication of the existence of an illegal immigration syndicate in Lampung, nor any involvement of the Lampung police," said the Head of the Lampung police Public Relations Unit Police Commissioner Fatmawati. The head of police in Lampung, Brigadier General Sugiri in another turn said that the death ship didn't depart from Lampung. "That is not true. They left from Karangbolong, Banten," said Sugiri.

This explanation is made stronger by the clarification of the Base Commander of the Indonesian Navy at Teluk Rantai, Naval Colonel Didiek Koesdijono. He is convinced that the ship did not depart from Lampung waters. This is because he had already tightened the watch on all harbours in Lampung waters. A week previously Didiek said, his group had actually received information that there would be a departure of hundreds of illegal immigrants from Lampung. "I immediately ordered troops to blockade all the ports." It turned out that the departure did not take place," said Didiek.

According to Didiek, while Lampung had become an emergency stopover for illegal immigrants queue-jumping to Australia. This is because Lampung waters are relatively the closest to Christmas island. The distance between them is only 200 nautical miles, about 350km, which can be traveled (in difficult conditions) in three days. "That is even with a very bad boat," stated Didiek, who confesses that he does not have a fleet sufficient to watch the region around Lampung. He only has one 12 metre patrol boat.

Didiek stated that on the evening of October 18 he received information from a fisherman in the waters of Teluk Lampung. His information was that there was a suspicious looking boat wandering back and forth in the waters off Legundi, Lampung. The navy moved quickly. However, the boat had vanished.

This was the boat which then, on October 21, was asserted to sink in the waters of the Indian Ocean. A group of immigrants from Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan intended to head to Christmas Island, an Australian possession. In the disaster, of 418 passengers, only 44 passengers were saved.

Passengers who were saved related to Gatra that two days previously, the ship's captain had said that the ship's motor was broken and the water pump didn't work. Its condition was clearly dangerous for a boat which was carrying an excess. The capacity of the boat was for only 150 passengers. What could be done, the vessel had sunk before assistance came. The Indian Ocean became the grave for the ship without a name.

Those who had the opportunity to catch it in the act only knew its physical characteristics. "The boat wasn't in Lampung," said Wedi the skipper of a'gardan' boat* on Gudang Lelang beach, Teluk Betung Barat. Gardan boat is a special word fishermen in Lampung use for boats about 14 metres with a width of 4 metres and a height of 1.5 metres which uses a 14 horsepower 'patch' motor. "The boat which sank was approximately three times the size of a gardan boat." said Wedi.

"We often see boats like that in Muara Angke, Jakarta and Karang Hantu, Cilegon," countered Sanurin a ship's captain there. In his estimation the death boat was 40 metres long with a width of 8 metres. "Usually they use a 24hp motor," said Sanurin. Boats like this are usually used for transporting timber.

Wedi could talk about the boat, because one of his boats took the opportunity to carry 22 passengers who failed to sail on the ill-omened vessel. According to him, Thursday afternoon two weeks ago, the fishing boat Rukun Agung which was captained by Udin sailed from the beach at Gudang Lelang. Several hours after sailing, Udin saw a boat being tossed about in the waters of Legundi, about 40 km from Gudang Lelang beach. "The passengers in the boat seemed to be panicking, some were shouting." said Udin, 35 years.

Because he was suspicious, together with his six crew, Udin approached. It seemed a number of passengers wished to get off the wooden boat which was thronged with passengers. Udin was prepared to carry them, however his boat had a capacity of only 10 people. However, a Middle-Eastern man who became the spokesman for the group forced 24 passengers to be crowded on the Rukun Agung. They consisted of 14 men and 8 women together with two children toddlers. The group of immigrants wanted to pay $US200 provided they were landed where there was a car available.

Udin wasn't prepared to promise a car. He could only carry them to the beach. So, $US100 was agreed as cost of the 'ferry-ride'. Then the Rukun Agung moved away from the mysterious boat. Unfortunately, in the middle of the journey, in the region of Pulau Tangkil the boat broke down. Udin contacted his boss, Wedi, requesting that help be sent. Around about 8pm the immigrants were landed at Lempasing beach, not far from Teluk Agung. The news then reached the navy and the police.

The immigrants were then evacuated to the office of the Lampung Regional Police. They were, said Sugiri, some of hundreds of illegal immigrants who had escaped from various refugee centres, including Cisarua, Bogor. Exactly at the time of crossing the waters around Lampung , the group became worried about the condition of their vessel. They decided to get off mid-trip. It was at that moment that Udin's boat approached.

The police then conducted an investigation. But, because of language difficulties, not much information was uncovered. "Only three people could speak English and that was halting," Sugiri added. From them emerged the admission of the earlier matter of Cisarua. The regional police then sent them back to Cisarua by bus, through the port of Bakauheni.

According to him, the Lampung police didn't arrest even one of the immigrants. Surigi said that there wasn't a reason to arrest them. "They were ordinary refugees. There wasn't any amongst them who could be said to be coordinating the arrangements." he added.

While at the regional police office the refugees closed ranks to withhold their identity. When a member of the police wanted to take their photograph the refugees who were mostly women became angry and attacked the officer. "I really wanted to take the opportunity to take their photograph, but it seemed that they didn't want it", said Fatmawati, the Commissioner of Police to Sugiyanto from Gatra.

UNHCR has another version of the incident. Kemala Anggraini Ahwil, External Relations Officer UNHCR Indonesia is convinced that the unlucky boat departed from Lampung. "Someone was co-ordinating them to gather in Lampung," he said. His reasoning is that the victims of the incident came from several places, among them Lombok, Bogor, Cilcap and Lampung itself. This is different to the police version which states a total of 402 people, according to UNHCR documents 418 people sailed. From that total, apart from the 24 people who got off at Legundi beach, only 44 passengers were saved.

What makes Kemala heavy-hearted is that 30 of those people already had refugee status. Automatically they were the responsibility of UNHCR. Furthermore the remainder had the status of illegal immigrant and were managed by the International Organisation of Migration (IOM). "They only had to wait until they were placed," said Kemala, downheartedly.

What could be done, the refugees couldn't wait patiently in uncertainty. Furthermore, up to now not one person could be sent to their country of destination through UNHCR. Consequently, their trust in the organisation was decreasing. (see: Rejected by the Land of Hope.)

UNHCR's explanation is in agreement with admission of those who were saved once they met with Gatra at their place of confinement in the Hotel Sulanjana and the Villa Ragal, Cisarau, Bogor. They admitted leaving from one of the beaches in Lampung. They departed separately from various places. Ali Behram, an Afghani refugee, admitted going from Jakarta with seven of his friends to a beach in Lampung. "There were already a lot of people there. We sailed at night," he said.

After several hours' sailing Ali said, the captain of the boat reported that the motor was dead. The water pump was not working. Passengers began to panic when water began to enter the vessel. "All the passengers were shouting. Not long after we were all floating in the sea, some of them straightaway jumped into the sea," said Ali. He was saved because he continued to hold on to the side of the boat, before the boat fully sank. Two days later he was assisted by a passing fisherman. "This is all the work of God," said Berham. He admitted, after the incident he did not know what would happen.

Behram was not alone. Based on the reports of the immigration office, in the period 2000/2001 there were 1,663 illegal immigrants in Indonesia: 704 whose nationality was uncertain, 514 from Afghanistan, 57 from Iran, 35 from Iraq, 11 from Palestine, 20 from Pakistan and two others from Vietnam. Of the total 535 had already been given refugee certification from the UNHCR. They received RP500,000 per month assistance.

According to Kemala there are several patterns which are used to handle the problem of refugees, among them returning them to their country of origin, placing them for a while in a holding country and sending them to a country which wishes to receive them. In the case of Indonesia, it is only the third alternative which can take place.

Refugees far from the day have said they are reluctant to be returned to their country of origin. On account of their reluctance they often remain silent when asked their country of origin. "We prefer to choose death," stated one Iraqi immigrant at a reception cenre at Wisma Palar, Bogor.

The second alternative, to detain them in Indonesia, can't be undertaken because Indonesia is not one of the countries which has ratified the 1951 Geneva Convention. Further, countries which have signed often point fingers at one another. "To be honest, UNHCR is overwhelmed," said Kemala.

* In Malaysia tugboats are called 'kapal gardan'

Hidayat Tantan, Mariana Ariestyawati dan Sugiyanto (Bandar Lampung)


Kuburan kapal tak bernama
29 October 2001

Mimpi ratusan imigran gelap asal Timur Tengah berakhir di perairan Samudra Hindia. Perdana Menteri Australia memanfaatkannya untuk memojokkan Indonesia. Otak penyelundupnya masih bergentayangan.

KEPALA Kepolisian Daerah (Polda) Riau, Brigadir Jenderal Djoni Yod- jana, ketiban sampur. Wartawan datang silih berganti minta kon- firmasi, menyusul pernyataan Kapolri Jenderal Soerojo Bimantoro yang cukup menggegerkan. "Betul, kami tak menahan siapa pun," kata Djoni kepada Gatra, Sabtu pekan lalu. "Pernyataan Kapolri itu benar, tapi penyebutan lokasinya salah," Djoni menambahkan.

Penangkapan itu, menurut dia, tak terjadi di Riau, melainkan di Lampung. "Saya sudah mengecek ke Mabes Polri," katanya. Sehari sebelumnya, seusai menghadap Presiden Megawati Soekarnoputri di Istana Negara, Jakarta, jenderal yang akan memasuki masa pensiun itu melansir berita heboh: dua polisi telah ditangkap menyusul teng- gelamnya kapal nelayan yang disesaki ratusan imigran gelap di perairan Samudra Hindia, pekan sebelumnya.

"Saya sudah cek ke Kapolda Riau, dua orang sekarang ditahan. Pang- katnya brigadir polisi," katanya. Apakah kedua polisi ini yang menodongkan senjata untuk memaksa para imigran naik ke kapal seperti diberitakan media Australia? "Tidak, mereka hanya mengawal," kata Bimantoro. Jasa pengawalan ini dianggap sebagai pelanggaran, karena tanpa perintah atasan.

Penjelasan Bimantoro itu sekaligus menjawab permintaan Perdana Menteri (PM) Australia, John Howard. Untuk mengatrol posisi politiknya yang lagi jadi bulan-bulanan oposisi karena dianggap tidak becus menangani imigran gelap, Howard mencoba menggertak Jakarta. Dia meminta penjelasan resmi soal tenggelamnya kapal di Samudra Hindia tersebut.

Sydney Morning Herald dan The Australian memberitakan, petugas kepolisian memaksa para imigran naik ke atas perahu dengan todongan senjata. "Kejadian itu sebuah tragedi. Jika tuduhan itu benar, maka hal itu menggambarkan pihak yang berwajib yang buruk," kata PM Howard dalam wawancara dengan radio ABC di Canberra, Kamis pekan lalu.

Pertanyaannya: siapa yang meminta jasa pengawalan kepada kedua polisi itu? Abu Quassey, pria kelahiran Mesir yang diburu kepolisian Australia? Si Abu memang dianggap sebagai godfather aksi penyelundupan imigran gelap Timur Tengah ke "negeri kanguru" itu, melalui Indonesia.

Abu Quassey ini pula yang dianggap bertanggung jawab atas kiriman paket maut di perairan Samudra Hindia, di lepas pantai selatan Banten. Sampai akhir pekan lalu, Polri menolak menjelaskan hubungan kedua oknum itu dengan Abu Quassey. Bimantoro hanya menyebutkan bahwa si Abu kini lagi diburu polisi.

Polda Lampung membantah anggapan telah menahan anggotanya. "Tak ada indikasi keberadaan sindikat imigran gelap di Lampung, apalagi sampai melibatkan petugas Polda Lampung," kata Kepala Dinas Penerangan Polda Lampung, Komisaris Polisi Fatmawati. Kapolda Lampung, Brigadir Jenderal Sugiri, malah bersikukuh bahwa kapal maut itu tak berangkat dari Lampung. "Tidak benar itu. Mereka berangkat dari Karangbolong, Banten," kata Sugiri.

Keterangan ini diperkuat penjelasan Komandan Pangkalan TNI Angkatan Laut di Teluk Rantai, Kolonel Laut Didiek Koesdijono. Ia yakin, kapal itu tak bertolak dari perairan Lampung. Pasalnya, ia sudah mengencangkan penjagaan di semua pintu perairan Lampung. Sepekan sebelumnya, kata Didiek, pihaknya memang mendapat informasi akan ada pemberangkatan ratusan imigran gelap dari Lampung. "Saya langsung perintahkan pasukan untuk menutup semua pintu guna pemblokiran. Ternyata pemberangkatan itu tak ada," kata Didiek.

Menurut Didiek, selama ini Lampung memang menjadi persinggahan darurat para imigran guna menerobos ke Australia. Soalnya, perairan Lampung relatif paling dekat dengan Pulau Christmas. Jaraknya hanya 200 mil laut, sekitar 350 km, yang bisa ditempuh selama tiga hari. "Itu pun dengan kapal yang paling jelek," ujar Didiek, yang mengaku tidak memiliki armada yang mencukupi untuk menjaga wilayah laut Lampung. Dia hanya memiliki satu kapal patroli berukuran 12 meter.

Didiek menyebutkan, pada 18 Oktober malam ia menerima informasi dari nelayan di perairan Teluk Lampung. Infonya, ada sebuah kapal men- curigakan yang mondar-mandir di perairan Legundi, Lampung. Pihak Angkatan Laut cepat bergerak. Sayang, kapal itu telah raib.

Kapal itulah yang kemudian, pada 21 Oktober, dinyatakan tenggelam di perairan Samudra Hindia. Rombongan imigran dari Iran, Irak, dan Afghanistan itu mulanya berniat menuju Pulau Christmas, milik Aus- tralia. Dalam musibah tersebut, dari 418 penumpang, hanya 44 penumpang yang selamat.

Kepada Gatra, para penumpang yang selamat menuturkan, dua hari sebelumnya, kapten kapal menyatakan mesin kapal mati, dan pompa air tak bekerja. Kondisi ini jelas berbahaya untuk kapal yang kelebihan muatan. Kapasitas kapal itu hanya untuk 150 penumpang. Apa boleh buat, kapal pun karam sebelum pertolongan datang. Samudra Hindia jadi kuburan kapal tak bernama itu.

Yang sempat memergoki hanya mengenali ciri-ciri fisiknya. "Perahu itu tak ada di Lampung," kata Wedi, juragan kapal "gardan" di pantai Gudang Lelang, Teluk Betung Barat. Kapal gardan adalah sebutan khas nelayan di Lampung untuk perahu sepanjang 14 meter, lebar 4 meter, dan tinggi 1,5 meter yang menggunakan mesin tempel berkekuatan 14 PK. "Kapal yang tenggelam itu kira-kira tiga kali kapal gardan," kata Wedi.

"Kapal seperti itu sering kami lihat di Muara Angke, Jakarta, dan Karang Hantu, Cilegon," Sanurin, seorang nakhoda kapal di situ, ikut menimpali. Dalam perkiraannya, kapal maut itu panjangnya 40 meter dengan lebar 8 meter. "Biasanya mereka pakai mesin 24 PK," kata Sanurin. Kapal seperti ini biasanya dipakai untuk mengangkut kayu.

Wedi bisa bercerita soal kapal itu, karena salah satu kapalnya sempat membawa 22 penumpang yang urung berlayar dengan perahu nahas itu. Ceritanya, Kamis siang dua pekan lalu itu, kapal ikan Rukun Agung yang dinakhodai Udin berlayar dari pantai Gudang Lelang. Beberapa jam setelah berlayar, Udin melihat sebuah kapal terombang- ambing di perairan Legundi, sekitar 40 km dari pantai Gudang Lelang. "Penumpang dalam kapal itu terlihat panik, ada yang sampai berteriak-teriak," kata Udin, 35 tahun.

Karena curiga, bersama enam anak buahnya, Udi mendekat. Rupanya, sejumlah penumpang ingin turun dari perahu kayu yang dijejali penumpang itu. Udin bersedia membawa mereka, namun kapasitas perahunya cuma 10 orang. Tapi, seorang pria Timur Tengah yang men- jadi pemimpin rombongan itu memaksa menjejalkan 24 penumpang ke kapal Rukun Agung. Mereka terdiri dari 14 pria, delapan wanita, ditambah dua anak balita. Rombongan imigran ini mau membayar US$ 200 asalkan sampai di darat disediakan mobil.

Udin tak berani menjanjikan mobil. Ia hanya bisa membawa ke pantai. Maka, ongkos "tambang" disepakati US$ 100. Kemudian, Rukun Agung bergerak menjauhi kapal misterius itu. Sialnya, di tengah per- jalanan, di kawasan Pulau Tangkil, perahu itu mogok. Udin mengontak bosnya, Wedi, minta dikirim bantuan. Sekitar pukul 20.00, para im- igran itu bisa diangkut ke pantai Lempasing, tak jauh dari Teluk Agung. Berita ini kemudian sampai ke aparat Angkatan Laut dan kepolisian.

Imigran itu kemudian dievakuasi ke Markas Polda Lampung. Mereka, kata Sugiri, bagian dari ratusan imigran gelap yang melarikan diri dari pelbagai tempat penampungan, termasuk di Cisarua, Bogor. Pas melintasi perairan Lampung, rombongan ini mengkhawatirkan kondisi kapal. Mereka memutuskan turun di tengah jalan. Pada saat itulah perahu Udin mendekat.

Polisi kemudian melakukan pemeriksaan. Tapi, karena kesulitan bahasa, tak banyak informasi yang bisa digali. "Hanya tiga orang yang bisa bahasa Inggris, itu pun terbata-bata," Sugiri menambahkan. Dari merekalah muncul pengakuan soal Cisarua tadi. Polda pun kemudian megirimkan mereka kembali ke Cisarua dengan bus Damri, melalui Pelabuhan Bakauheni.

Menurut dia, pihak Polda Lampung tak melakukan penahanan terhadap satu orang pun dari para imigran tersebut. Sugiri mengatakan tidak ada alasan untuk menahan mereka. "Mereka itu pengungsi biasa. Tak ada di antara mereka yang bisa disebut koordinator pemberangkatan," ia menegaskan.

Saat di Polda, para pengungsi menutup rapat-rapat identitas diri mereka. Ketika pihak Polda ingin mengambil gambar mereka, para pengungsi yang sebagian besar wanita itu justru marah dan menyerang petugas. "Saya memang sempat ingin mengambil foto mereka, tapi tampaknya mereka tidak mau," ujar Komisaris Polisi Fatmawati kepada Sugiyanto dari Gatra.

UNHCR punya versi lain soal insiden itu. Kemala Anggraini Ahwil, Ex- ternal Relations Officer UNHCR Indonesia, yakin bahwa kapal nahas itu berangkat dari Lampung. "Ada orang yang mengoordinasikan mereka untuk berkumpul di Lampung," katanya. Alasannya, para korban insiden tersebut berasal dari berbagai tempat, antara lain Lombok, Bogor, Cilacap, dan Lampung sendiri. Berbeda dengan versi polisi yang menyebutkan angka 402 orang, menurut catatan UNHCR, yang ikut ber- layar itu 418 orang. Dari jumlah itu, selain 24 orang yang turun di pantai Legundi, hanya 44 penumpang yang selamat.

Yang menyesakkan dada Kemala, dari 418 orang itu, 30 orang di antaranya sudah berstatus pengungsi. Otomatis mereka ada di bawah tanggung jawab UNHCR. Adapun sisanya berstatus imigran gelap dan diurus International Organization of Migration (IOM). "Mereka seharusnya menunggu saja sampai ditempatkan," kata Kemala, masygul.

Apa boleh buat, para pengungsi itu seperti tak sabar menunggu dalam ketidakpastian. Apalagi, sampai sekarang belum seorang pun yang bisa diseberangkan ke negeri tujuan lewat UNHCR. Buntutnya, kepercayaan mereka pada lembaga ini makin menipis (lihat: Ditolak Tanah Harapan).

Keterangan UNHCR itu klop dengan pengakuan para korban yang selamat saat ditemui Gatra di temapat penampungan mereka di Hotel Sulanjana dan Villa Ragal, Cisarua, Bogor. Mereka mengaku berangkat dari salah satu pantai di Lampung. Mereka berangkat terpisah dari ber- bagai tempat. Ali Behram, seorang pengungsi asal Afghanistan, mengaku bersama tujuh temannya pergi dari Jakarta menuju salah satu pantai di Lampung. "Di sana sudah banyak orang. Kami berlayar pada malam hari," tuturnya.

Setelah beberapa jam berlayar, kata Ali, kapten kapal melaporkan bahwa mesin kapal mati. Pompa airnya tak main. Penumpang mulai panik ketika air mulai masuk ke kapal. "Semua penumpang berteriak-teriak. Tidak lama kemudian kami semua mengapung di laut, sebagian langsung kecebur ke laut," kata Ali. Ia selamat karena terus berpegangan pada sisi kapal, sebelum kapal itu benar-benar tenggelam. Dua hari kemudian, ia ditolong nelayan yang lewat di perairan itu. "Ini semua karena Allah," kata Berham. Ia mengaku, setelah insiden tersebut tak tahu harus melakukan apa.

Behram tak sendiri. Berdasarkan catatan kantor imigrasi, imigran gelap periode 2000/2001 yang berada di Indonesia berjumlah 1.663 orang: 704 kewarganegaraannya tidak jelas, 514 dari Afghanistan, 57 dari Iran, 35 dari Irak, 11 orang dari Palestina, 20 dari Pakistan, dan dua orang lainnya dari Vietnam. Dari jumlah tersebut, yang sudah dikasih brevet pengungsi oleh UNHCR adalah 535 orang. Mereka mendapat bantuan Rp 500.000 per bulan.

Menurut Kemala, ada beberapa pola yang bisa dipakai untuk menangani masalah pengungsi, antara lain dikembalikan ke negara asal, ditempatkan sementara di negara penampung, dan dikirim ke negara yang mau menerima mereka. Untuk kasus di Indonesia, hanya alternatif ketiga yang mungkin dilakukan.

Para pengungsi jauh-jauh hari sudah menyatakan ogah dikembalikan ke negara asal mereka. Saking ogahnya, mereka sering bungkam kalau ditanya asal negara. "Kami lebih memilih mati," ujar salah seorang imigran Irak di tempat penampungan di Wisma Palar, Bogor.

Alternatif kedua, menampung mereka di Indonesia, tak bisa dilak- sanakan, karena Indonesia bukanlah negara yang ikut meratifikasi Konvensi Jenewa 1951. Padahal, negara yang ikut menandatangai pun masih sering saling tunjuk. "Terus terang UNHCR kelabakan," kata Kemala.

Hidayat Tantan, Mariana Ariestyawati, dan Sugiyanto (Bandar Lampung)


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